First steps to use Python SDK for immudb — the blazing fast, open source immutable database



immu-py implements a grpc immudb client. A minimalist API is exposed for applications while cryptographic
verifications and state update protocol implementation are fully implemented by this client.
Latest validated immudb state may be kept in the local filesystem when using default rootService,
please read immudb research paper for details of how immutability is ensured by immudb.


immu-py assumes there is an existing instance of the immudb server up and running. Running immudb is quite simple, please refer to the
following link for downloading and running it:


Install the package using pip:

    pip install git+

Then import the client as follows:

    from immudb.client import ImmudbClient

Note: immu-py is currently hosted in [Github Packages].

Supported Versions

immu-py supports the latest immudb release.


Hello Immutable World! example can be found in immudb-client-examples repo.

Step by step guide

Creating a Client

The following code snippets shows how to create a client.

Using default configuration:

    client = ImmudbClient()

Setting immudb url and port:

    client = ImmudbClient("mycustomurl:someport")
    client = ImmudbClient("")

User sessions

Use login and logout methods to initiate and terminate user sessions:

    client.login("usr1", "pwd1");

    // Interact with immudb using logged user



Please note that, in order to provide maximum flexibility, all functions accept byte arrays as parameters. Therefore, unicode strings must be properly encoded.
It is possible to store structured objects, but they must be serialized (e.g., with pickle or json).

Creating a database

Creating a new database is quite simple:


Setting the active database

Specify the active database with:


If not specified, the default databased used is "defaultdb".

Traditional read and write

immudb provides read and write operations that behave as a traditional
key-value store i.e. no cryptographic verification is done. This operations
may be used when validations can be post-poned:

    client.set(b"k123", b"value123");
    result = client.get(b"k123");

Verified or Safe read and write

immudb provides built-in cryptographic verification for any entry. The client
implements the mathematical validations while the application uses as a traditional
read or write operation:

        client.safeSet(b"k123", new byte[]{1, 2, 3});
        results = client.safeGet(b"k123");
    Except VerificationException as e:
        # Do something

Multi-key read and write

Transactional multi-key read and write operations are supported by immudb and immupy.
Atomic multi-key write (all entries are persisted or none):

    normal_dictionary = {b"key1": b"value1", b"key2": b"value2"}

Atomic multi-key read (all entries are retrieved or none):

    normal_dictionary = {b"key1": b"value1", b"key2": b"value2"}
    results_dictionary = client.getAll(normal_dictionary.keys())
    # Or manually
    client.get([b"key1", b"key2"])

User management

Users can be added and granted access to databases.

Adding a user

The createUser functions create a new users and grants the specified permission to a database.


client.createUser(user, password, permission, database)

The database must exists at the time the user is created. The password must be between 8 and 32 characters in length, and must have at least one upper case letter, a symbol and a digit.

Permission are defined in immudb.constants and are:


Changing password

The user must must provide both old and new password:

resp=client.changePassword(user, newPassword, oldPassword)

It is applied the same password policy of user creation.

User list

To get the list of user created on immudb, simply call listUsers:


Closing the client

To programatically close the connection with immudb server use the shutdown operation:


Note: after shutdown, a new client needs to be created to establish a new connection.


We welcome contributions. Feel free to join the team!

To report bugs or get help, use GitHub’s issues.

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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials


Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).


immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

Use Case - Finance


Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.


While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

Use Case - eCommerce and NFT marketplace


No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

  • High amount of transactions (potentially millions a second)
  • Ability to read and write multiple records within one transaction
  • prevent overwrite or updates on transactions
  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

Use Case - IoT Sensor Data


IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.


immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence


CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.


As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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